Thyroid during Pregnancy – Dietburrp

Thyroid during Pregnancy – Dietburrp


Pregnancy is a transformative period in a woman’s life. It is marked by significant physiological changes that ensure the baby’s proper development. Thyroid function is one of the most critical aspects of maternal health during pregnancy. Thyroid hormones are indispensable for the baby’s development, especially the brain and nervous system. Let us dig into the intricacies of thyroid function, the impact of thyroid disorders, and maintaining the health of the thyroid during pregnancy.

Thyroid during Pregnancy

Causes of Thyroid during Pregnancy

  • Human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG), a hormone produced during pregnancy, stimulates the thyroid gland to produce more hormones.
  • Extra thyroid is required to meet the metabolic needs of both the mother and the growing fetus.
  • The placenta produces estrogen, which increases the levels of thyroid-binding globulin (TBG).
  • TBG is a protein that transports thyroid hormones in the blood.
  • This increase in TBG necessitates a corresponding rise in thyroid hormone production to maintain adequate free hormone levels.

Thyroid During Pregnancy

Hypothyroidism

An underactive thyroid gland characterizes hypothyroidism. It is relatively common in pregnancy. It can either result from autoimmune thyroiditis (Hashimoto’s disease) or iodine deficiency. However, it can simply occur if your thyroid gland cannot meet the increased requirements of thyroid hormone during pregnancy.

thyroid during pregnancy

Symptoms of Hypothyroidism during Pregnancy

  • fatigue
  • weight gain
  • constipation
  • feeling dull and depressed
  • changes in voice
  • muscle cramps
  • dry skin
  • feeling cold

 Untreated hypothyroidism during pregnancy can lead to complications like preeclampsia, anemia, miscarriage, low birth weight, and impaired neuropsychological development in the baby.

 

Hyperthyroidism

An overactive thyroid gland characterizes hyperthyroidism. It is less common but can still occur during pregnancy. It is often caused by Graves’ disease, an autoimmune disorder.

hyperthyroid during pregnancy

Symptoms of Hyperthyroidism during Pregnancy

  • rapid heart rate
  • weight loss
  • excessive sweating
  • nervousness

 Untreated hyperthyroidism can lead to complications such as preterm birth, low birth weight, and preeclampsia.

Screening and Monitoring Thyroid during Pregnancy

  • Screening: It is recommended that women with risk factors for thyroid disease undergo screening during pregnancy for TSH and free thyroxin. Risk factors include a family history of thyroid disease, previous thyroid issues, existing goiter, or symptoms that indicate thyroid dysfunction.
  • Monitoring: This involves periodic blood tests to measure TSH and FT4 levels. The goal is to maintain a balance to support maternal health as well as fetal development.

 

Why is Thyroid Health Important During Pregnancy?

  • Impact on Maternal Health: For the mother, managing thyroid health can prevent complications such as preeclampsia, anemia, and miscarriage. It aids in maintaining overall well-being. It also helps in reducing symptoms like fatigue, weight fluctuations, and mood disturbances that significantly affect the quality of life during pregnancy.
  • Foetal Development: For the baby, adequate thyroid hormone levels are crucial for neurodevelopment. Thyroid hormone is vital in the formation of the brain and spinal cord, influencing cognitive function and motor skills. Ensuring sufficient thyroid hormone levels can help in preventing developmental delays and neuropsychological impairments.

How can I control my thyroid during pregnancy?

    • Regular Check-ups: Attend all prenatal appointments and follow your healthcare provider’s advice regarding thyroid function tests and monitoring.
    • Medication Adherence: If prescribed thyroid medication, take it exactly as directed. Regularly get your medication dose adjusted as needed.
    • Stress Management: Practice stress-reducing techniques such as yoga for pregnancy, meditation, or gentle exercise, as stress can impact thyroid function.
    • Healthy Diet: Maintain a balanced diet rich in nutrients that support thyroid health, such as selenium, zinc, and vitamins A and D.

 

10 best and safe yoga poses for pregnancy

 

Diet Tips for Thyroid during Pregnancy

  • Balanced diet: Eat a variety of foods that include all food groups. Consume moderate amounts of carbohydrates, high proteins, moderate fats, and adequate colorful vegetables and fruits.
  • Iodine-Rich Foods: Iodine is essential for thyroid hormone production. Pregnant women need about 250 micrograms of iodine daily. Include iodine-fortified food, dairy products, eggs, or iodized salt for cooking.
  • Selenium-Rich Foods: Selenium supports thyroid function and helps protect the gland from damage. Include Brazil nuts, poultry, brown rice, paneer, eggs, sunflower seeds, bananas, cashews, and oats.
  • Zinc-Rich Foods: Zinc is important for thyroid hormone production and immune function. Include meat, shellfish, legumes, nuts, and seeds like pumpkin seeds, cashews, and almonds.
  • Iron-rich foods: Iron deficiency can affect thyroid function. Consume poultry, leafy vegetables, legumes as well as cooked spinach and kale.
  • Vitamin D-Rich Foods: Vitamin D plays a role in thyroid health. Include fatty fish like salmon and mackerel, eggs, and vitamin D-fortified foods like juices, cereals, or supplements.
  • Omega-3 Fatty Acids: Omega-3s help reduce inflammation and support thyroid function. Consume fatty fish, flaxseeds, chia seeds, walnuts, and olive oil.
  • Antioxidant-Rich Foods: Antioxidants help protect the thyroid gland from oxidative stress. Include colorful fruits and vegetables, nuts and seeds.
  • Avoid Goitrogens in Excess: Goitrogens can interfere with thyroid function if consumed in large amounts. They are found in cruciferous vegetables and soy products. These foods can still be part of a balanced diet but should not be consumed in excess. Avoid broccoli, cabbage, cauliflower, and Brussels sprouts. Also, reduce the use of soy and its products. However, cooking these foods thoroughly will remove the goitrogens.

Sample Diet Plan for Thyroid during Pregnancy

Energy: 1500 kcal (first trimester)

Carbohydrates: 250 gms

Proteins: 60 gms

Fats: 25 gms

 

Empty stomach: Medicine with water if any

After half an hour: ½ cup Soaked nuts (2 almonds, 2 walnuts, 1 brazil nut, pumpkin seeds, 1 date)

Breakfast: 1 cup Milk (No sugar) + 1 Egg spinach Omelette or Moong dal chilla with vegetables + Green chutney

Mid-morning: 1 glass Sattu in Buttermilk

Lunch: 1 cup Green Salad + 2 Jowar Roti or 2 Wheat Chapati + ½ cup Rice + 1 cup Dal  + 1 cup French beans and carrot sabji + 1 cup curd or 100 gms chicken

Snacks: 1 cup Milk with dry fruits OR 1 Fruit (100 – 150 gms)

Mid-evening: 1 cup vegetable soup

Dinner: 1 cup Green Salad + 1 cup Dal vegetable Khichdi + 2 small 1-inch patty of sweet potato, carrot and capsicum + 1 cup Kadhi + 1 cup Botttlegourd tomato vegetable

Bedtime: 1 cup Warm Saffron milk (No sugar, 2 strands of kesar)

 

End note

Thyroid health is a critical aspect of a healthy pregnancy, influencing both maternal well-being and fetal development. Consume a diet rich in essential nutrients like iodine, selenium, zinc, iron, and omega-3 fatty acids. Always consult with your certified nutritionist to tailor your diet to your specific needs and circumstances.



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